4/88Applied Biosystems Inc. begins supplying DNA
using phosphoramadite chemistry,
synthetic DNA used in probes, primers and gene
SRI International files for a patent
for an E. coli expression vector. Three months later SRI unveils a five year biotechnology business plan.
Jay Levy's UCSF lab isolates the AIDS virus at almost the same time it is isolated at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and at the NIH
Cal Bio scientists describe in Nature
the isolation of a gene
for anaritide acetate, which helps regulate blood pressure and control salt and water excretion.
Stanford receives a patent for prokaryote DNA
Chiron Corp. announces the first cloning
of the entire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome.
Genentech's Axel Ullrich reports the sequencing of the human insulin receptor in Nature
. Bill Rutter's UCSF team describes the sequencing in Cell
two months later.
Cal Bio clones the gene that encodes human lung surfactant protein, a major step toward reducing a premature birth complication.
Genentech Inc. receives FDA approval to market human growth hormone. The first recombinant pharmaceutical product to be sold by a biotechnology company.
Science reports Cetus Corp.'s GeneAmptm polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technology, which allows the generation of billions of targeted gene sequence
copies in only hours.
Disclosure of Advanced Genetic Sciences Inc. "Roof-Top" experiments with ice-minus bacteria leads to heightened EPA regulation
of open-air trials of engineered organisms.
Molecular Devices receives a patent covering a method employing light-generated electrical signals for detecting chemical reactions on the surface of semiconductor
The FDA grants Chiron Corp. a license for the first recombinant
vaccine, to battle the hepatitis B virus.
Chiron Corp. and Ortho Diagnostics Systems Inc. reach agreement to supply AIDS and hepatitis screening and diagnostic
tests to blood banks worldwide.
publishes a paper by UC-Berkeley chemist Peter Schultz describing how to combine antibodies
and enzymes creating "abzymes" to create pharmaceuticals.
Calgene Inc. receives a patent
for the tomato polygalacturonase DNA sequence
and its use to produce an antisense RNA sequence, to produce extended shelf life fruit.
Advanced Genetic Sciences Inc. conducts the first field test of a recombinant
organism, Pseudomonas Syringae, a frost inhibitor, on a Contra Costa County strawberry patch.
The NIH (National Institute of Health) awards IntelliGenetics Inc. a $17.2 million over five years to administer GenBank(R), the national computerized data bank of nucleic acid sequences.
Genentech Inc. receives FDA
approval to market Activase(R) (genetically engineered
tissue plasminogen activator) to treat heart attacks.
The "Harvard Mouse," created by molecular geneticists Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart, now at Genentech Inc., becomes the first mammal patented in the U.S.
SyStemix Inc. receives a license on a patent
application for the SCID -hu mouse, an immune deficient mouse with a reconstituted human immune system.
Genencor International receives a patent for a process to make bleach-resistant protease enzymes to use in detergents.
The first International Biotechnology
Expo & Scientific Conference opens in Oakland, CA. IBEX is now the largest conference to focus on the biotech
Hoffman-La Roche Inc. and Cetus Corp. reach a licensing agreement
for two anti-cancer drugs, interleukin-2 and Polyethylene Glycol modified IL-2. The move leads the way for further cross-licensing
between companies with parallel patents
XOMA Corp. files for FDA
approval to market the first immunoconjugate, CD5 Plus, to treat acute graft-vs.host disease, a bone marrow transplant complication.
XOMA Corp. files for FDA
approval to market
E5, a monoclonal antibody
drug, to treat gram-negative sepsis.
Stanford University opens the $100 million Beckman Center to link fundamental molecular
biology and clinical
medicine. Nobel Laureate Paul Berg is named director.
Calgene Inc. conducts its first field tests of antisense tomatoes, to test reduced fruit rotting
. This first antisense food product awaits FDAmarketing
Syntex Laboratories introduces an anti-viral agent to slow the spread of life-or-sight-threatening cytomegalovirus infections in immuno-compromised patients.
Expression Center molecular biologist Athanasios Theologis reports in PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
USA) the cloning
of a gene
necessary to synthesize ethylene, the ripening hormone and gas.
Cutter Biological files for a new drug application
for a recombinant
Factor VIII biological, the blood-clotting protein missing in people with hemophilia.
The first daily, on-line biotechnology
business newspaper, BioWorld begins publishing in San Mateo, California. The following April, a daily fax version is introduced.
Arris Pharmaceutical Corp.'s Monty Krieger describes in Nature
of a gene
that could lead to an atherosclerosis therapeutic
for heart disease.
reports that scientists at Genlabs Technologies Inc. and the Centers for Disease Control cloned
a portion of the hepatitis E virus.
Protein Design Labs Inc. reports in Cancer Research that its humanized, anti-IL-2 receptor antibody mediates antibody
toxicity against target T cells.
UCSF and Stanford issue their 100th recombinant DNA
patent license. By the end of fiscal 1991, both campuses had earned $40 million from the patents
Calgene Inc. announces the first successful field trial of gene
tically engineered cotton plants
for use with the herbicide bromoxynil.
licenses Chiron's hepatitis C antibody test,
removing a major threat to the nation's blood supply and the screening of donated whole blood.
An article in Science
by researchers at Athena Neurosciences Inc. reports on events leading to the formation of the beta amyloid plaque found in the brains of Alzheimer's patients.
Two years after UC-Davis pomologists Gale McGranahan and Abhaya Dandekar report the transfer of a foreign gene
into a walnut plant
, the first woody crop field trial begins.
The California Supreme Court rules in the John Moore case that a patient does not have rights to profits from products derived from his own cell
approves for sale Burroughs Wellcome Co's synthetic lung surfactant, based on respiratory distress syndrome research conducted by UCSF physiologist John Clements.
The Bay Area Bioscience Center, a non-profit public service corporation founded by universities, companies and local government, open it's office.
UC-Berkeley epidemiologist Mary-Claire King reports in Science
finding a gene
linked to breast cancer in families with a high degree of incidence before age 45.
The first transgenic dairy cow
, created by GenPharm International, Inc. is born. The cow will be used to produce milk proteins to make infant formula.
The Human Genome
project begins: the goal is set of mapping the entire human genome by 2005.
Cancer patients are treated with a gene therapy
that produces the tumor necrosis factor, a natural tumor fighting protein. Genes for deafness, colon cancer, inflammation, and sense of smell are discovered.
Nature publishes the discovery by Plant Gene Expression Center research geneticist Sarah Hake that corn's developmental gene, Kn1, contains a homebox for regulating gene expression.
s are transferred to treat patients with hereditary high cholesterol, adult brain tumors and neuroblastoma (a nervous system cancer in infants and children. The genes for adult muscular dystrophy and childhood deafness are discovered.
The first physical maps presented for chromosome
21 and chromosome Y.
s are transferred to treat patients with cystic fibrosis, malignant melanoma, small-cell lung cancer, and brain tumors. Researchers discover genes for hereditary colon cancer, Huntington disease, hyperactivity, Lou Gehrigs disease, the most common forms of alzheimer's disease, adrenoleukodystrophy, and adult-onset diabetes.
USDA approves genetically engineered tomato and cow hormone that stimulates milk production.
The physical maps of the following chromsomes
are published: 3,11,12,16,19 and 22.
"Dolly" becomes first the mammal cloned
The Human Genome Project and Celara Genomics Inc. announce a major milestone in mapping
the human genome.